Archive for the ‘Cattle’ Category

Three Trimesters that Last a Lifetime – Cow Gestation

Friday, August 18th, 2017

Cow GestationMake the most of calf development during cow gestation.

When you think of the first moments of a calf’s life, you might picture a newborn calf vigorously nursing a healthy mama cow. You probably don’t think of that calf in utero. But a calf’s lifetime performance can hinge on the nine months before birth. That’s why it’s important to take advantage of the 283 days of a cow’s gestation and reduce the potential “bad days” she has during her pregnancy. “A bad day is when a pregnant cow loses weight due to stressors like poor nutrition, disease challenges or harsh environment,” says Ron Scott, Ph. D., director of beef research for Purina Animal Nutrition. “External stressors can impact the cow’s entire metabolism and how nutrients flow to the growing fetus.” Limiting the cow’s bad days and improve your chance of positively influencing fetal growth, which is important during every trimester.

 

Building a foundation

“You might wonder, ‘why is a little-bitty fetus such a big deal?’” says Scott. “It’s simple: The first trimester is when you’re building the foundation of life for a calf. During this time the placenta develops and serves as a hotel room service for the fetus for the rest of the pregnancy.” The placenta is a direct connection that provides oxygen and nutrients from the dam to the developing fetus. If the placenta is not well developed because of cow stress, reduced blood flow can negatively affect fetal nutrition throughout gestation.

The first trimester is also when the fetal brain, heart, liver and reproductive organs form.

“We typically don’t think about replacement heifer development until there’s a live calf on the ground,” says Scott. “But developing a successful replacement heifer begins in the first trimester when germ cells start forming the reproductive system developed in utero will affect a heifer’s fertility throughout her life.

 

Muscling up

During the second trimester, the fetus continues to grow organs and establish internal systems that influence those organs for a lifetime. Fetal muscle fiber development also begins during this time. “Cattle produce muscle we sell in the form of weight, but a stressed cow can lead to reduced muscle fiber development and, ultimately, lower carcass weights,” says Scott. “When you think about what we sell as an industry, the second trimester is vital.”

 

Preparing for parturition

Growth skyrockets during the last trimester, and lung development is critical as the calf prepares for breathing on its own.

“The calf has, hopefully, been in an excellent environment, getting all of its nutrition and oxygen from the dam,” says Scott. “But once it’s born, it’s going to need to breathe on its own. It’s also going to need a nutritious diet. Stress and nutrition for the cow during the third trimester impacts colostrum quality and quantity.”

 

The most critical time

Is there a most important trimester?

“That’s like asking a parent to pick their favorite child,” says Scott. “Each trimester is vital in its own way.”

Historically, the last trimester was considered the most important because of 75 percent of fetal growth occurs during this time. Recently, more attention has been paid to the first trimester when the foundation of life is occurring. More research is being conducted to determine exactly how important this stage really is.

“One thing is clear – each trimester plays a significant role,” says Scott. “Consistent, daily nutrition to the dam can help avoid bad days that shortchange a developing fetus and its future performance.”

 

Take out the guesswork

What does all of this mean for you nutrition program?

“You don’t want to overfeed because it means you’re overspending,” says Scott. “However, feed is an investment, and good-quality forage is essential, especially during extreme heat or cold when energy intake is compromised.”

Cattle nutrition requirements change with the season, and it can sometimes be challenging to know what to provide your cows. One solution that helps eliminate guesswork is Accuration Supplement with Intake Modifying Technology. Accuration Supplements are designed so cows only consume them when they need them, which allows cows to get the nutrition they need.

Three trimesters and zero bad days. Take a look at your herd. See if there are ways you can reduce stress, provide more consistent cow nutrition and set your calves up for a bright future.

 

Article Attributed to Purina Mills and Ron Scott, Ph. D.

Don’t set and forget self-fed supplements

Monday, August 7th, 2017

Self-Fed SupplementsBetter management of self-fed supplements could improve consumption and optimize performance.

Self-fed supplements are commonly used to deliver essential nutrients to cattle and to meet their nutritional requirements. However, use of a self-fed supplement does not translate to a self-managed supplementation program. Proper management of self-fed supplements is important to achieve desired intake and cattle performance goals.

One of the biggest challenges producers face with self-fed supplements is consumption,” says Christina Hayes, Ph.D., beef product manager with Purina Animal Nutrition. “When intake isn’t within the expected range, cattle performance may suffer. For optimal performance, management of self-fed supplements is essential.”

Many things can influence consumption, from forage quality and amount to supplement location and water availability. But you can take steps to help manage supplements and optimize intake.

The first step to becoming a better supplement manager begins with measuring intake.

 

Determining Consumption

“Calculating consumption can help you get a baseline intake for your herd, which you can then compare to target intake levels for the supplement,” says Hayes. “If your herd’s intake is below or above target intake levels, then you know it’s time to make adjustments.”

The following calculation can help you measure herd intake:

(Pounds of supplement distributed / # of cattle) / # days supplement was available

When making this calculation, don’t forget that calves will consume some supplement as well.

“If a supplement is not being consumed at target intake levels, it’s time to start troubleshooting,” says Hayes. “What is the forage quality? Where is the feeder located? Have there been weather challenges? What is the overall feeding program?”

If consumption is a challenge, there are strategies you can implement to help achieve the desired intake.

 

Managing Supplements

Implementing some simple strategies can go a long way toward ideal supplement consumption.

Here are a few tips:

  • Look for a high-quality supplement that includes protein, energy, calcium, phosphorus and trace minerals
  • It is best to start supplementing early to ensure cattle requirements are being met. If you wait too long to supplement and cows have to play nutritional catch-up, you may experience supplement overconsumption.
  • Initially, place supplements near a water source or in loafing or grazing areas. Cattle frequently visit those spots, giving them more opportunity to consume as they adjust to using the supplements. As the cattle become more comfortable with supplements, you can gradually move supplements further from those areas to entice them to graze underutilized pasture.
  • Ensure fresh, cool water is available, preferably in the shade during the warm, summer months. As temperature and humidity rise, cattle will require more water. Poor water quality, or lack of water, can cause cattle to go off feed quickly, which can limit feed intake and overall cattle performance.
  • Do not move a full bulk feeder. The feed may pack, which can compromise flow, especially if the feed is oily.
  • Clean feeder troughs regularly to remove any compromised product and help keep product fresh. When it rains, feed behind an adjustable gate can become wet, causing feed to swell, and preventing flow of fresh feed. Removing wet feed will also prevent mold and rot.
  • For supplements with Intake Modifying Technology, consumption will adjust with changes in forage quantity and quality. Expect higher consumption with lower quality/quantity forage and lower consumption with higher quality/quantity forage. Be aware that in times of lower quality/quantity forage, cattle may consume supplements rapidly.

Here are some general rules of thumb by self-fed product:

Wind & Rain Storm Mineral:

  • Put fresh, non-medicated mineral out once per week.
  • Use a covered mineral feeder to help protect the mineral.
  • Know if your mineral is complete or non-complete. Complete minerals include salt, which helps drive intake.

Accuration Block or Tub Supplement:

  • In contrast to a plastic tub, blocks have corrugated cardboard sides. Initially, in smaller pastures, more than one big block can be placed in a feeding location. When consumption is determined, then the blocks can be relocated or separated.
  • Cows per block is a function of block size and pasture size.
    • 500 lb. block: One block per 20 to 25 cows
    • 200 lb. block: One block per 10 to 15 cows

Accuration Liquid Supplement:

  • All storage tanks and lick tanks must be cleaned prior to adding liquid.
  • At the end of the feeding season, tip tanks on their sides so the remaining liquid will flow out from the wheel slot. This prevents the remaining liquid from gelling, separating or molding inside the tank and keeps rain water from entering the tank.
  • Accuration Liquid is a suspension product. Without agitation, it can become thicker over time, so it is important to move the liquid on a regular basis to maintain the free-flowing state. If forage quality is meeting cattle requirements and liquid intake is low, it is a good practice to more the lick wheels manually. That should be done weekly to keep the product from thickening in the tank.

 

Driving performance

No matter the product form, a self-fed supplement should not be approached with a “set it and forget it” strategy. “Small things like adjusting tub location and cleaning out a feeder can work together to help you achieve desired intake levels,” says Hayes. “And more desirable consumption can, potentially, lead to improved cattle performance.”

The extra time spent calculating supplement consumption and making adjustments may be well worth it.

 

Article Attributed to Purina Mills and Christina Hayes, Ph. D.

Summer Mineral Minute – Cattle Mineral Program

Saturday, July 15th, 2017

Mineral ProgramQuick and timely considerations for your mineral program.

  • If using a mineral form of fly control, consistent intake is key. Consider using Wind and Rain Storm Fly Control Mineral with Altosid (IGR) in either granular or tub form.
  • To help achieve consistent mineral intake, use enough mineral feeders for your herd size. A good rule is to use one feeder for every 20 to 30 head.
  • Make sure all cattle, including calves and timid cows, have equal access to feeders. Placing feeders in multiple locations helps provide all cattle the opportunity to consumer the mineral
  • Use water as a tool to adjust intake. If mineral intake is lower than desired, move feeders closer to water sources. If intake is higher than desired, move feeders further from the water.
  • As grasses start drying, antagonists can block absorption of minerals. If antagonists are a concern, consider using a mineral with Availa 4.
  • If you plan to use a mineral with chlortetracycline to control anaplasmosis, a VFD will be required.

Article Attributed to Purina Mills.

Back to Cattle Starter Feed Basics

Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

Cattle Starter FeedVFD may require you to take a second look at your weaned calf program.

If your buy starter feeds, this may be the first year you’ll purchase under the Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD). And what may have been a simple feed order in years’ past could now cause some frustration if you plan to use a starter feed containing a VFD-regulated drug. Instead of getting hung up on whether your starter formulation will include a drug, now is a good time to look at the goals of your weaned calf program and get back to starter feed basics.

Starter feeds 101

“The single most important job of a starter feed is to get calves to eat,” says Ted Perry, cattle nutritionist with Purina Animal Nutrition. “Once calves are eating, their immune systems increase, and they have a better chance of staying healthy through the weaning period.” “Healthy calves supported by a quality starter feed, whether the feed contains a drug or not,” Perry adds. Palatability is extremely important when making a feed selection because it’s what drives calves to start and continue eating. “A less palatable feed may take a calf three days to really start consuming – that’s 72 hours where a calf’s energy and protein reserves are being depleted and their immune status is in jeopardy,” says Perry. “We need to get calves eating from day one to build rumen microbe populations and immune status.” A quality starter feed should have research-proven consumption. When making your starter feed selection, ask questions about palatability and request intake research. “Once calves are on feed, everything else becomes very simple,” adds Perry.

Sorting through feed options

There are a variety of palatable starter feeds available, but Perry advises selecting one to fit your management style and weaned calf goals. “Based on your labor resources, feeding facilities and performance goals, you can select either a self-fed or hand-fed starter feed,” says Perry “Complete feeds and supplements are available based on your existing forage.”

The Purina starter feeds below provide a convenient solution for any operation:

Accuration Starter Feed: This coarse-textured, complete feed includes roughage and utilizes Intake Modifying Technology to help achieve target intake levels. Accuration Starter is a high-energy feed that helps maximize efficiency. This self-fed feed does not require additional forage and is designed for calves with superior genetics going directly to the feedyard.

Precon Complete Feed: This pelleted complete feed includes roughage and is highly palatable and nutrient dense. It gets calves quickly to restore nutrients lost through the stress of weaning and shipping. Precon Complete Feed is designed for calves with moderate genetics or unknown previous management. This feed is also recommended for high-stress or high-risk calves and does not require additional forage.

Stress Care 5 Supplement: This pelleted starter is designed to deliver a potent dose of essential nutrients for stressed cattle in a small inclusion package (five pounds per head per day). This hand-fed supplement is for producers looking to take advantage of their feedstuffs and is designed to be fed alongside unlimited, good-quality forage. The three feeds listed are available in medicated and non-medicated forms.

Don’t navigate alone

When evaluating starter feed options, don’t be afraid to ask for help. “Talk through your weaned calf goals with your nutritionist,” Perry says. “They can help you identify a starter feed to fit your forage availability, labor resources, feed type preference, feeding facilities, and cattle genetics. Your nutritionist can also help develop a budget, set realistic expectations for your program and help sort through different market scenarios and potential return on investment.” No matter which starter you choose, a weaned calf nutrition program should support healthy calves and more pounds. “Calves receiving proper nutrition, whether the feed contains a drug or not, have stronger immune systems and are less likely to get sick,” says Perry. If you do plan to use a starter feed containing a VFD-regulated drug, it’s critical to have a conversation with your veterinarian and nutritionist now. It has been said that getting back to basics is the simplest way to find calm in the chaos. This mantra couldn’t be truer for weaned calf programs in a new VFD world. Getting back to starter feed basics can help you navigate this new era and achieve your goals.

Article Attributed to Purina Mills and Ted Perry.

Control Cattle Parasites With VetGun

Monday, June 26th, 2017

VetGunJ&N Feed and Seed now carries the VetGun by Agrilabs,for cattle parasite control. The VetGun Insecticide Delivery System is a unique system for delivering insecticide-filled gel capsules (AiM-L VetCaps, sold separately) to control horn flies and lice on cattle. AiM-L VetCaps burst upon contact to deliver the insecticide. The VetGun is powered by CO2 and can be utilized from 15′ – 30′ away. Simply aim, shoot, and treat. It’s easy to operate, accurate, and reliable. Cattle are easily treated while milling around or feeding, without added stress or labor. Allows one person to easily apply insecticide from horseback, pickup, ATV, or while on foot. Saves time and puts you in control of when and where you treat your cattle.  It’s more efficient, plain and simple.

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Three Things to Look for in Cattle Mineral

Tuesday, May 2nd, 2017

Whether you buy a cattle mineral off the shelf at a retail store, walk into your local dealer and request their ‘standard’ mineral or work closely with your nutritionist to select a mineral supplement for your herd, sorting through the various mineral types can sometimes be a daunting task.

It may even be a purchase decision that’s so complex you simply cling to the generic or most popular cattle mineral available in your area.

But, the generic or popular option may not be the best choice for your herd’s mineral requirements. If you’re not feeding a quality supplemental mineral, you may see the consequences of mineral deficiencies later in the form of decreased calf weaning weights, small or weak calves, decreased milk production, reduced or delayed conception and even poor immunity.

Not all cattle minerals are created equal, and it’s important to recognize the differences in minerals that are out there. Even though mineral nutrition is complicated, you can easily evaluate or ask questions about a few different elements of a mineral supplement.

Here are three things to look for in your cattle mineral:

1. Balanced cattle mineral nutrition
A complete mineral should contain the proper balance and ratios of all 14 essential cattle minerals. Those minerals include: calcium, copper, cobalt, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulphur and zinc.

A proper zinc-to-copper ratio is one of the biggest considerations when choosing a mineral, with a ratio of 3-to-1 being preferable. Zinc and copper are commonly deficient microminerals in cattle, and the ratio is critical because of how closely zinc and copper absorption are tied.1

2. Large particle size ingredients and rain protection
Rain and other elements can quite literally wash a mineral investment down the drain, or can alternately turn your mineral into a brick-type substance which cattle often refuse to eat.

A weatherized mineral should not just be water-resistant, it should be wind-resistant as well. You don’t want the particles to be so small that the wind picks them up and blows them away. A weatherized mineral that includes a larger particle can remedy this problem.

The biggest drawback of a non-weather resistant mineral is that cattle just aren’t going to consume it. Daily mineral needs to be consumed, and if you’re not seeing consumption because the mineral has been turned into a hard block or because the particles are being blown away, then your investment is a loss.

3. Organic, bioavailable mineral sources
Another important aspect when choosing a mineral is to make sure it has bioavailable mineral sources. The bioavailability of a mineral source alters the absorptive ability of the trace minerals eliciting their full benefit.

Mineral sources that are more bioavailable may be a bit more costly, but they can be a good fit for herds with marginal trace mineral status, consistent reproduction issues, overall herd health problems, foot problems or in areas with forage or water issues.

Some key trace minerals that you might look to for bioavailability would be zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt. These minerals are required for a variety of functions including, but not limited to, immunity, reproduction, growth and fiber digestion.

Watch the video below to see the difference between Wind and Rain® Storm® cattle mineral and a non-weatherized version.

cattle mineral

Ted Perry

– Purina Animal Nutrition, Lead Nutritionist, Beef Technical Solutions

Horn Flies: the $1 Billion Bite at Cattle Profits

Monday, April 10th, 2017

Can you imagine being bit 120,000 times per day? It might be hard to imagine what this feels like, however during peak timeframes, as many as 4,000 horn flies can call a cow’s hide home.horn flies

At 30 blood meals per day, that adds up to 120,000 bites per cow. Not only are these bites irritating your cows, but with production losses for the U.S. cattle industry are estimated at up to $1 billion annually, they’re also biting away at your profits.

High horn fly populations can cause blood loss and increased cattle stress or annoyance. Annoyance can cause cattle to use their energy to combat flies, change their grazing patterns and cause cattle grouping. Ultimately, it can lead to decreases in milk production, causing a reduction in calf weaning weights.

From ear tags and pour-on to mineral or feed supplements with fly control, there are a lot of different ways to manage flies and each solution has a place in the industry.

But, the best places to start is by breaking the horn fly life cycle in the manure.

Making manure magic
One of the most convenient and consistent ways to control horn flies in cattle is giving them a mineral supplement that contains an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR). An IGR passes through the animal and into the manure, where horn flies lay their eggs. It breaks the horn fly life cycle by preventing pupae from developing into biting adult flies.

Using mineral supplements with an IGR can help reduce expenses, labor, and stress on your cattle that other methods can cause. Cattle don’t need to be rounded up or handled since IGR is consumed by the animal and fly control is spread through its manure as it grazes.

It also provides consistency, as cattle are regularly consuming IGR through their mineral.

In like a lion, out like a lamb
Fly control mineral should be fed 30 days before the last frost of spring, before fly emergence. This 30-day window at the beginning of spring is critical because temperatures can fluctuate to levels that cause flies to emerge. Once those flies are present, you want to have fly control in the manure.

While heavy emphasis is placed on controlling flies in spring and summer, it’s important to finish strong in the fall. Horn flies overwinter in the pupal stage, which can jump-start adult populations in the spring. Using fly control mineral longer in the fall decreases the opportunity for flies to overwinter in the soil and reduces large fly populations the following spring.

Mineral should continue being fed through summer and 30 days after the last frost in the fall.

Don’t let it wash away
There are many forms of fly control mineral available, but it’s important to choose one that can stand up to the unpredictable weather that spring brings. Rain and other elements can quite literally wash your mineral investment down the drain, or turn your mineral into a brick-type substance which cattle often refuse to eat.

Look for a fly control mineral that can withstand the weather. A weatherized mineral should have a large particle size and adequate water and wind resistance.

Using a fly control mineral this spring can help keep fly populations down, but only if cattle are consuming it. If you’re not seeing consumption because the mineral has been turned into a hard block or because the particles are being blown away, then your investment is a loss.

 

Ted Perry

– Purina Animal Nutrition, Lead Nutritionist, Beef Technical Solutions

Winning The Battle With Horn Flies

Wednesday, February 22nd, 2017

horn fliesThe coming of warm weather means the advent of troublesome horn flies for beef producers.  Get a jump-start on fly control with Purina Wind and Rain Storm Fly Control Mineral. This feed-through mineral is available in tub or granulated form, right here at J&N Feed and Seed.

Horn flies are annoying, to be sure.  But they are more than just pests, they are “obligate parasites”  that must stay with—and live off of—their hosts in order to survive.  They feed on cattle by cutting through the skin and sucking blood.  This is not only painful and distressing for the animal, but also has a direct impact on body condition and, consequently, on the producer’s bottom line.

“Making blood is an expensive process,” according to Scott Boutilier, vice president of sales and marketing for Central Life Sciences (CLS) professional businesses.  “All that blood is lost body mass, weight, meat and muscle that could have been going on someone’s plate.”  As a result, Boutilier says, an estimated $800 million is lost each year to horn flies.

The gold standard in controlling these pests is S-Methoprene, the generic name for Altosid® IGR, which is registered to a subsidiary of CLS. The product, originally developed in the late 1960s for mosquito control, was registered by the EPA in 1975 as a cattle feed-through product.  Incorporated into cattle feed, Altosid passes through the animals without affecting them, remaining in manure to control horn flies.  It does this by mimicking a juvenile fly hormone that inhibits fly larvae from maturing.

“Methoprene by nature is very similar to juvenile insect hormones,” said Boutilier, who studied entomology, chemistry, and insect physiology in undergraduate and graduate school.   “It’s very complex chemically, but environmentally benign.  It breaks out into very simple compounds, so it doesn’t have negative effects on the environment.”

In fact, the EPA has determined that the use of methoprene is exempt from tolerance.  And, insects have not developed a resistance to Altosid, unlike many other insect control products that kill the adult. “At the same time,” Boutilier explained, “the product is sensitive to sunlight, so delivery and formulation is critical to its performance.  And, you have to make sure you deliver the correct amount to achieve the right effect.”

As a result, CLS has created a variety of formulations, all very specific to their intended uses.  In the cattle market, for instance, they created a formula that will pass through and remain in manure.  The dosage is low enough that it affects horn flies, but doesn’t inhibit dung beetles’ ability to break down manure.  The dosage is typically about 1.1 mg per hundredweight of animal, per day.

Boutilier described the work Purina has done on consumption and intake management as “elegant.”  It’s a method the company uses in its Wind and Rain® Fly Control Mineral tubs, which incorporate Altosid.  Through taste and physical properties, the method actually controls how much the animal consumes, keeping the nutrients at appropriate levels for the desired effect.

“They’ve made the product attractive, so that cattle will eat it, but only eat so much,” Boutilier explained.  “Then after a while, they will come back for more.  It’s an amazing level of sophistication that has evolved with Purina’s IM Tech (Intake Modifying Technology®) program.”  Boutilier says incorporating Altosid with pre-existing feeding programs is a very cost-efficient method of controlling horn flies.

“If you are going to feed an animal anyway, you have no additional labor cost to deliver the horn fly control with feed,” he pointed out.  “Plus, this method is so much easier than an ear tag or back rubber.  And every dollar you spend, yields 6 to 10 dollars in increased weight gain and faster weight gain, so it is a high value solution for cattle producers.”

Boutilier said producers should start administering the product about a month before horn flies start maturing until about 30 days after the first hard frost.  That way they can virtually eliminate the horn fly season.  He stressed that ranchers need to administer Altosid 30 days after the first frost to make sure the insects don’t go into pupae.

“Most cattle producers who start on the program stay on it, because it is effective and delivers a good return,” Boutilier concluded. “Customer satisfaction is very high.”

For more information about options for controlling horn flies through mineral supplements, contact us.

Article:  Purina Mills Cattle

Anaplasmosis Blocks For Beef Cattle

Monday, February 20th, 2017

Anaplasmosis BlocksAnaplasmosis Blocks for beef cattle are now available at J&N Feed and Seed.

Anaplasmosis  is a tick-borne, infectious disease of cattle that causes destruction of red blood cells.  The disease is caused by a minute parasite, Anaplasma marginale , found in the red blood cells of infected cattle. It can be transmitted from infected animals to healthy animals by
insects or by surgical instruments.

To help prevent the spread of anaplasmosis, we carry  free choice Anaplasmosis Blocks that aids in the control of active infection of anaplasmosis.  Use on beef and non-lactating dairy cattle over 700 pounds.

  • Aids in the control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasmosis marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline
  • Convenient, self-fed daily delivery of Aureomycin®
  • Highly palatable block consistently draws grazing cattle
  • More consistent consumption than salt-based blocks
  • Delivers supplemental protein and energy
  • Contains essential minerals and vitamins
  • Requires less labor than medicated feeds
  • Do not require costly feeders or bunks

Cattle Lac Liquid Cattle Feed at J&N Feed and Seed

Tuesday, January 24th, 2017

Liquid Cattle FeedJ & N Feed and Seed offers bulk and liquid cattle feed (Cattle-Lac liquid feed) to the Graham and surrounding communities. We have trailers available for use with purchase in addition to bulk delivery. Bring your trip-hoppers and pick up or we can arrange delivery to your ranch.  Talk to us about your needs, give us a call at (940) 549-4631.

Cattle-Lac Liquids helps farmers get the very most out of their valuable pasture land. The CATTLE-LAC supplement actually stimulates beneficial bacteria in the cattle rumen, allowing the animal to break down grass roughage faster and easier.  The cattle then eat more grass, which means a healthier, heavier animal. The bottom line is that farmers who feed CATTLE-LAC supplements get the maximum amount of meat per acre of pasture.

 

 

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